Mixtape: Francophone Hip Hop and Political Consciousness

Hip-hop is at the forefront of political contestation in Francophone Africa, and has been for decades. Too-often unrecognized in the West, particularly in the Anglophone

Bas and the internationalization of hip-hop

Bas, a New York City-based rapper with French roots and Sudanese parents, is a prominent member of the American hip-hop scene. He has contributed to

Y’en a marre and Coronavirus: Not just the opposition

Senegal’s Y’en a Marre movement, which roughly translates in casual French to “fed up,” was formed first in 2011 during broad-based protests against the regime

Gunman Xuman: Consciousness and History

In my last article, I wrote a profile of Matador, one of Senegal’s most important figures at the intersection of civil society and hip-hop. This

Matador: From Thiaroye To the world, Civil society in Hip-Hop

Senegalese hip-hop has historically been on the front line of the civil society of the country’s political struggle against government corruption and repression. These artists